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Fürstentum Waldeck und Pyrmont
Principality of Waldeck-Pyrmont
State of the Holy Roman Empire,
State of the Confederation of the Rhine,
State of the German Confederation,
State of the North German Confederation,
State of the German Empire
Duchy of Franconia
1180–1918 30px
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms of Waldeck–Pyrmont
Anthem
Waldecker Lied
Waldeck within the German Empire

200px
Map of Waldeck, showing the border between Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau
Capital Waldeck (to 1655)
Arolsen (from 1655)
Language(s) German
Government Principality
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Established as a County 1180
 - Became Reichsgraf 1349
 - Succeeded to Pyrmont 1625
 - Raised to Imp. Principality January 1712
 - Administered by Prussia,
    with autonomy
 
1868
 - German Revolution 1918
 - Subsumed into Prussia 1929
Area
 - 1905 1,121 km² (433 sq mi)
Population
 - 1905 est. 59,135 
     Density 52.8 /km²  (136.6 /sq mi)

Waldeck (or later Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a sovereign principality in the German Empire and German Confederation and, until 1929, a constituent state of the Weimar Republic. It comprised territories in present-day Hesse and Lower Saxony (Germany).

History Edit

Waldeck was a county within the Holy Roman Empire from about 1200 - its counts included Adolf II of Waldeck from 1270 to 1276. In 1655, its seat and the chief residence of its rulers shifted from the castle and small town of Waldeck, overlooking the Eder river and first mentioned in 1120, to Arolsen. In 1625 the small county of Pyrmont became part of the county through inheritance. In January 1712, the count of Waldeck and Pyrmont was elevated to prince by Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor. For a brief period, 1805 to 1812, Pyrmont was a separate principality as a result of inheritance and partition after the death of the previous prince, but the two parts were united again in 1812. The independence of the principality was confirmed in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, and Waldeck and Pyrmont became a member of the German Confederation. From 1868 onward, the principality was administered by Prussia, but retained its legislative sovereignty. Prussian administration served to reduce administrative costs for the small state and was based on a 10-year contract that was repeatedly renewed until Waldeck was formally absorbed into Prussia in 1929. In 1871 the principality became a constituent state of the new German Empire.

In 1905, Waldeck and Pyrmont had an area of 1121 km² and a population of 59,000.

At the end of World War I, and during the German Revolution, resulting in the fall of all the German monarchies, the prince abdicated and Waldeck and Pyrmont became a Free State within the Weimar Republic.

The princely house of Waldeck and Pyrmont is closely related to the royal family of the Netherlands: the last ruling prince, Frederick, was the brother of Dutch Queen consort Emma.

Rulers of Waldeck and Pyrmont Edit

Reigning Princes 1712–1918 Edit

  • 1712–1728: Friedrich Anton Ulrich; elevated 1712 to hereditary prince by Emperor Charles VI
  • 1728–1763: Karl August
  • 1763–1812: Friedrich Karl August
  • 1812–1813: Georg I
  • 1813–1845: Georg II
  • 1845–1893: Georg Victor
  • 1893–1918: Friedrich; brother of the Dutch Queen consort Emma

Non-reigning princes since 1918 Edit

MilitaryEdit

Waldeck had raised a battalion of infantry in 1681 but for much of the subsequent history leading up to the Napoleonic Wars, Waldeckers generally served as mercenaries in foreign service. Most notably this was with the Dutch and English - the latter using them to suppress rebellions in the colonies. Many Waldeckers thus served during the American War of Independence, where they were known under the 'umbrella term' used during that conflict for all Germans - 'Hessians'.

By the time of Napoleon's conquest of Germany, the Waldeck Battalion was termed 'Fusilier Battalion'. Under Napoleon this was disbanded, and Waldeck was obliged to provide 2 companies to the II Battalion, 6th German Confederation (i.e. Confederation of the Rhine) Regiment (along with 2 companies from Reuß). The soldiers continued to be referred to as Fusiliers. They served mainly in the Peninsula War against the Duke of Wellington. In 1812 the 6th Confederation Regiment was re-formed, with 3 companies from Waldeck and 1 from Reuss again forming the II Battalion. After Napoleon's downfall in 1815, Waldeck supplied 3 Infantry and 1 Jäger Companies to the newly formed German Confederation.

File:Cockade Waldeck.png

By 1866, the Waldeck contingent was styled 'Fürstlisches Waldecksches Füselier-Bataillon', and in the Austro-Prussian War of that year Waldeck allied with Prussia - however the Battalion saw no action. Joining the North German Confederation after 1867, under Prussian leadership, the Waldeck Fusilier Battalion became the III (Fusilier) Battalion of the Prussian Infantry Regiment von Wittich (3rd Electoral Hessian) No. 83, and as such it remained until 1918.

Unlike Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) retained no distinctions to differentiate them from the Prussian. The Waldeckers however, were permitted the distinction of carrying the Cockade of Waldeck on the Pickelhaube. The Waldeck battalion was garrisoned, at various times, at Arolsen/Mengeringhausen/Helsen, Bad Wildungen, Bad Pyrmont and Warburg.

The regiment saw action in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 (where it acquired the nickname 'Das Eiserne Regiment'), and during the First World War - as part of the 22nd Division - fought mainly on the Eastern Front.

External links Edit

Template:Upper Rhenish Circle Template:States of the Confederation of the Rhine Template:States of the German Confederation Template:States of the North German Confederation Template:States of the German Empireca:Waldeck da:Waldeck-Pyrmont de:Waldeck fr:Principauté de Waldeck-Pyrmont ko:발데크 it:Waldeck e Pyrmont nl:Waldeck-Pyrmont ja:ヴァルデック侯国 no:Waldeck-Pyrmont pl:Waldeck (księstwo) ru:Вальдек zh:瓦尔德克统治者列表

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