The Continental Army of the American Revolutionary War was organized into six regional departments for command and administrative purposes. Each department had a semi-autonomous commanding general. The Continental Congress dealt with and through the department commanders.
Throughout the war, Congress retained the authority to appoint or remove these commanders. In practice, when an urgent need arose, a commander was just as frequently appointed by George Washington or the executive power of one of the states, pending the approval of Congress. Many of these were then appointed by the Congress. This practice, along with the war and navy committees of the Congress, set the precedent for the later civil control of military affairs embodied in the United States Constitution.
The department commanders and their staffs also worked directly with the governments of the states within their department. At first these were all the ad-hoc or provisional governments, but the practice continued as more formal or structured governments emerged in each of the states. By convention, the commanders were major generals, which left George Washington as the ranking general of the army throughout the war.
There were six departments, although they were not all active for the entire war:
The Eastern Department was formed around those states that had originally sent troops to support the Siege of Boston, and in that sense it even existed before the Continental Army. This was essentially the New England department, and included the states of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island,
The Northern Department was those parts of New York north of New York City. It was first called the New York Department, but after the Highlands Department was created on November 12, 1776, it was always referred to as the Northern Department. This department was the only one to remain after the war. The last elements of the Continental Army were kept to guard the western frontier outposts.
The Highlands Department was the smallest in area, and was formed around the defenses on the Hudson River north of New York. After the British occupied New York City the defenses just north of there became critically important. The presence of British naval forces at New York emphasized the importance of the Hudson River, and both sides in the war recognized the importance of controlling that waterway. The Americans created fortifications, including West Point with its chain across the river. The British sought to gain control with the Saratoga Campaign in 1777.
The Middle Department comprised the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. It was usually referred to simply as the Main Army since George Washington was its commander throughout the war.
The Southern Department included Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia along with the western frontier south of Virginia. This department was the most independent of the commands due to geography and the need for year round operations. Most of the northern departments suspended offensive operations for the winter and early spring. It also was the only one whose command structure was destroyed twice. The first time was at the surrender of Charleston on May 12, 1780. The second was at the Battle of Camden on August 16, 1780.
The Western Department covered the frontier territories west and northwest of Virginia and Pennsylvania. It extended from Pittsburgh all the way to the Illinois country and as far north as the southern peninsula of Michigan.
The Canadian Department reflected the aspirations of the Congress and some Americans more than an effective theater of operations. The region was never under the control of the Continental Army. After the invasion of Canada failed, all troops were withdrawn by July 1776, and the Canadian Department went out of existence.
List of department commandersEdit
- Wright, Robert K. The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, 1983. Available, in part, online.de:Departements der Kontinentalarmee